Matching practices in secondary schools – France

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Hiller, Victor and Olivier Tercieux (2013), Matching practices in secondary schools – France, MiP Country Profile 16.

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Relevant country background

The French education system is divided into public schools and private schools. Overall 85% of primary school students and 80% of secondary school students attend public school (this has been a rather stable proportion over the last decade).[1] Private schools are mostly made of schools that have a contract with the State, which specifies that they should respect the official curriculum (in return, teachers are paid by the State) – these are mainly catholic schools. A small proportion of private schools do not have such a contract (because they do not respect the curriculum) and rely on a strong financial participation of families.

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Matching Practices for Primary and Secondary Schools in Scotland

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Manlove, David (2012), Matching Practices for Primary and Secondary Schools – Scotland,  MiP Country Profile 12.”

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Relevant country background

Attendance at primary and secondary school in Scotland is compulsory for all children aged between the ages of 4-16.  To start primary school in the August intake a child must have reached 4 on or before the 28 (or 29) February of the same year.  Parents can defer entry to primary school for a year for children who are 4 years old between 31 December and 28 (or 29) February, at the discretion of the local authority.  To start secondary school in the August intake, a child must usually have reached 11 on or before the 28 (or 29) February of the same year.  General education policy is determined at a national level by the Scottish Government and is implemented at a local level by the Scottish local authorities (there are currently 32 of these). Admission to schools is devolved to local authorities.

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Higher Education in Italy

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Merlino, Luca Paolo and Antonio Nicoló(2012), University admissions practices – Italy,MiP Country Profile 15.”

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Relevant country background

Students typically enter university at age 19 in Italy, one year later than in most EU countries. Following the Bologna harmonization process, universities are organized in a first cycle of 3 years (BA), followed by a 2-year secondary cycle of two years (MA).

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Elementary Schools in Italy

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Merlino, Luca Paolo and Antonio Nicoló (2012), Matching practices for Elementary Schools – Italy, MiP Country Profile 13.”

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Relevant country background

The Italian school system is governed by the central government that defines the schools’ organization, the curriculum, and allocates funds to schools, primarily based on the number of students. Nonetheless schools have, since 2000, been granted some autonomy regarding the curriculum, the day schedule, the material taught and extra-curriculum activities. They can do this also in collaboration with other schools, e.g., through school networks. The autonomy of organization is higher in the 5 regions that have a special autonomous status (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle d’Aosta) and (in some cases) recognized languages other than Italian taught in schools.

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Higher Education in Germany

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Kübler, Dorothea (2011), University admission practices – Germany, MiP Country Profile 2.”

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Relevant country background

Education in Germany is only partially regulated at the national level through federal law  (Hochschulrahmengesetz, HRG). Most issues of education are determined by the 16 German states (Bundesländer). Thus, each state has its own law that complements the federal rules (e.g. Berliner Hochschulgesetz (Berl HG) or Bayerisches Hochschulgesetz (BayHSchG)).

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Secondary Schools in Italy

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Merlino, Luca Paolo and Antonio Nicoló(2012), Matching practices for Secondary Schools – Italy, MiP Country Profile 14.”

Download full profile pdf


Relevant country background

The Italian school system is governed by the central government that defines the schools’ organization, the curriculum, and allocates funds to schools, primarily based on the number of students. Nonetheless schools have, since 2000, been granted some autonomy regarding the curriculum, the organization of the day, the material taught and extra-curriculum activities. They can do this also in collaboration with other schools, e.g., through school networks. The autonomy of organization is higher in the 5 regions that have a special autonomous status (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle d’Aosta) and (in some cases) recognized languages other than Italian taught in schools.

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Secondary Schools in Ireland

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “ChenLi (2012), Matching Practices for Secondary Schools – IrelandMiP Country Profile 11.”

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Relevant country background

In Ireland, secondary education (sometimes referred to as post-primary) caters students in the 12 to 18 years old group. Students start with the 3-year junior cycle study, followed by the 2-year senior cycle study. They can take an optional 1-year transitional study to bridge the two cycles, which leads to 5 years or 6 years in total for the secondary education.  An evaluation test takes place at the end of each of the two major cycles (i.e. junior and senior cycles). The results obtained on the Leaving Certificate Examinations at the end of senior cycle year are important criteria for admission at universities.

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Secondary Schools in Belgium (French-Speaking Region)

This country profile is part of a collective effort by the network members to map matching practices across Europe. If you find it useful and want to refer to it in your own work, please refer to it as “Cantillon, Estelle (2015), Belgium (French-Speaking Region), MiP Country Profile 12 .”

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Relevant country background

Education policies in Belgium are organized at the (language) community level. There are three language communities in Belgium: Dutch (Flemish Community), French and German. The Flemish Community and the French-speaking Community share responsibility for the delivery of education in the bilingual Brussels Capital Region and thus the two education systems overlap in Brussels (in addition to the European school system).

School education is compulsory and free from age 6 to age 18. Schools are all publicly funded (as long as they respect the curriculum of one of the communities) and are not allowed to charge registration fees. [1] Primary school covers age 6 to 12. Secondary school covers age from 12 to 18. Preschool for children aged 2.5 and above is also offered and publicly funded, but it is not compulsory.

Read moreSecondary Schools in Belgium (French-Speaking Region)

Related Markets

The members of Matching in Practice are involved in a large-scale mapping of matching practices in education and related markets in Europe. If you have comments on some of the descriptions included herein or want to contribute comments or expertise, please contact us.

In practice, there are many other markets that are connected to education markets and several of them are regulated in some form. These include the market for daycare places, the market for teachers, which is centralized or semi-centralized in some countries, and the allocation of young graduates to internship positions that are an intrinsic part of their training (clerk positions for lawyers and medical internships for doctors). This page describes some of these practices.

Countries or regions with available information are coloured blue, please click on each country or region for related profile. A list of profiles on related markets can be found here.

UK (Scotland)
What is allocated? Foundation training program.
Who is in charge? NHS Education for Scotland; the matching scheme is run in the School of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow (Rob Irving & David Manlove).
Restrictions on preference Applicants must provide a preference list of a specified length, currently 10.
Matching procedure A heuristic to find a stable matching in the presence of couples.
Priorities & Quotas Applicants are ranked globally by score; quotas are decided by individual units.
Tie-breaking random tie-breaking, but with repetition in an attempt to maximize the size of matching
Other features Couples are accommodated.

France
What is allocated? Teaching positions in public schools.
Who is in charge? The central administration for the inter-regional phase.
Regions for the intra-regional phase.
Restrictions on preference Inter-region mobility: no restrictions. Intra-region mobility: at most 20 schools (or cities, department…) ranked.
Matching procedure The assignment uses a variant of the school-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm, followed by cycles.
Priorities & Quotas There are no quotas. A point system, based on legal criteria and individual characteristics, is used to rank teachers.
Tie-breaking Inter-region mobility: date of birth (rarely used given the numerous criteria entering priorities over teachers) Intra-region mobility: teachers have the possibility to rank large geographic areas. Tie-breaking might be used to select a school within this area.

Israel
What is allocated? Medical internships.
Who is in charge? The Ministry of Health and a committee elected by the student body.
Restrictions on preference Students must rank all hospitals.
Matching procedure Variant of competitive equilibrium with equal incomes (CEEI).
Priorities & Quotas Proportional to hospitals’ size, and extra for periphery.
Other features Couples are to the same hospital.

Germany
What is allocated? Childcare places
Who is in charge? Federal, state and local governments
Restrictions on preference Varies across municipalities (from three up to unrestricted)
Matching procedure Varies across municipalities; decentralised variants of the first-preference-first mechanism are common
Priorities & Quotas Federal government sets legal framework; states provide guidelines for acceptable priority criteria and quotas. Municipalities can implement further rules
Tie-breaking Facilities can use one of the criteria or manual decisions as tie-breaker
Other features Large local variation in procedures and criteria

Higher Education

The members of Matching in Practice are involved in a large-scale mapping of matching practices in education and related markets in Europe. If you have comments on some of the descriptions included herein or want to contribute comments or expertise, please contact us.

Countries or regions with available information are coloured blue, please click on each country or region for related profile. A list of profiles on higher education can be found here.


BELGIUM
Who is in charge? Individual institutions, within regulatory guidelines.
Restrictions on preference
Matching procedure Open access, except in select tracks.
Priorities & Quotas None, except in select tracks.
Tie-breaking None, except in select tracks.

Germany
Who is in charge? (a) Clearinghouse, and (b) universities themselves.
Restrictions on preference (a) Applicants are allowed to submit one rank order list containing at most six universities for each part of the procedure. There is no consistency requirement for these lists. (b) No restrictions concerning number of subjects and universities
Matching procedure (a) Boston mechanism for the priority based part, and the university-proposing Gale-Shapley mechanism for the rest. (b) Applications and admissions at the level of the universities
Priorities & Quotas Quota for students with excellent grades from high school (20% of seats) and quota for students with the longest waiting times (20% of seats). The remaining 60% are allocated according to applicants’ and universities’ preferences.
Tie-breaking (a) Several tie-breaking rules such as handicaps, parents living close by etc., lottery. (b) Left to decide by each individual university.

Italy
Who is in charge? Ministry of Education, together with the universities. Decentralized for private universities.
Restrictions on preference None, except for the constraint imposed by the impossibility to take the entry exams of different universities that organize their exams on the same day.
Matching procedure Students are free to choose among all the degree programs into which they got admitted. If there is no cap on the number of students, public universities have to admit all students who apply.
Priorities & Quotas Based on exam results for degree programs with an entrance exam.
Tie-breaking The tie-breaking rule for degree programs with a legal cap on the number of students is set by the Ministry of Education (typically: results obtained in subsections of the test, final grade in high school and date of birth). Set by universities for other degree programs.

Ukraine
Who is in charge? Ministry of Education and Science and universities
Restrictions on preference Max. 5 programs without an ordering of these programs.
Matching procedure Semi-centralized procedure, equivalent to first three steps of the college-proposing deferred acceptance procedure.
Priorities & Quotas Priorities are based on the External Independent Test results, and school marks. In some cases, universities are allowed to organize additional exams. Some students (with health problems, from Chernobyl area, orphans, etc.) are admitted before all other applicants.
Tie-breaking There are almost no ties (because the range for the EIT results is large); there are several rules for tie-breaking.

Hungary
Who is in charge? A non-profit governmental organisation.
Restrictions on preference There is no restriction, but the applicants are charged for every item in their lists after the third one.
Matching procedure A score-limit algorithm based on the student-proposing Gale-Shapley algorithm.
Priorities & Quotas The scores of the students are coming from their grades and central entrance exams, with some additional scores for competitions, language certificates, or social and medical conditions.
Tie-breaking There is no tie-breaking, students with equal scores are either rejected or accepted together (‘equal treatment policy’).

UK
Who is in charge? Universities and UCAS.
Restrictions on preference Applicants can apply to a maximum of 5 degree tracks (with some exceptions). They are not asked to rank their choices.
Matching procedure The actual matching is largely decentralized but manages congestion by imposing constraints on applicants’ behavior.
Priorities & Quotas Medical schools have quotas for domestic and international students. For the rest, universities have complete freedom to evaluate applicants (interviews are common).
Tie-breaking Left to decide by each individual university/college.

Ireland
Who is in charge? Universities/institutes and the central applications office (CAO).
Restrictions on preference Applicants can apply to a maximum of 10 courses in order of preference, for different degree levels (level 8 and level 7/6).
Matching procedure 4 rounds for matching (different categories of students qualify for different rounds). The algorithm used in each round is the college-proposing Deferred Acceptance algorithm.
Priorities & Quotas Priorities are given to students with higher scores on the Leaving School Examination (LCE). Some universities have quotas for students with disabilities, students from socio-economically disadvantaged background, mature students, and FETAC applicants.
Tie-breaking A randomly-generated number is assigned to every student.

France
Who is in charge? The clearinghouse APB (voluntary participation) and the programs
Restrictions on preference Students can rank at most 12 programs per type of institution (technological faculties of state universities, other faculties of state universities, preparatory schools, technical high schools) and at most 36 in total.
Matching procedure An undisclosed matching algorithm is applied three times with manual rounds in between where students can temporarily or definitively accept offers.
Priorities & Quotas Selective programs use either state-determined criteria or criteria chosen by the institution itself. Non-selective programs use geographical priorities.
Tie-breaking Selective programs can choose a tie-breaking rule. Non-selective programs must use the rank of the program in the student preference list and random draws.